Analysis of context
Legal framework in Italy
In Italy, the legal framework aims at building an integrated system between Formal Education (school and university), Vocational Training and Non-formal Education (associations and universities). Since 1997 the national policies has redefined the adult education system through the foundation of Permanent Territorial Centres overtaking the initial aim to provide literacy training to the population, in order to respond to the cultural needs, especially with the spread of best practices. Further, in 2000, this system was reinforced thanks to the agreement between Government, Regions and public and private entities, and it was ratify the right of knowledge and lifelong learning included into the right of citizenship. In particular, the main legislations, which regulate the Adult Education in Italy, are:
- Law 59 of 15/3/1997 on the Public Administration Reform. Article. 21: "[...] educational institutions realize [...] training offer extensions which would also include training programs for adults ...".
- Ministerial Order 455 of 29 July 1997, the Ministry of Education has established the Permanent Territorial Centres (CTP) for education and training in adulthood.
- 31.3.1998: Legislative Decree No. 112 on the conferment of administrative functions and tasks to the regions and local authorities, in the implementation of Chapter I of the 59/97 law.
- Agreement into Unified Conference of State-Regions of 2 March 2000 and the Directive No. 22 of 6 February 2001 have further clarified the relevant policies, where the Ministry, other government departments, regions, local authorities "must commit themselves to promote the integrated Adult Education system and to work in synergy with the actors involved in the sector, in particular considering the contribution of associations.
- The Act No. 269/2006 art.632 redefined the Adult Education system related to Permanent Territorial Centres (CTP) into the educational institutions, called "Provincial Centres for Education of Adults (CPIA )".
- Through Fornero law (Presidential Decree no. 263/2012) was introduced a new form of adult education institution: District education center. CPIA will be up to the challenge of reducing the educational deficit of adults in Italy, in addition to meeting the new demands of knowledge, expertise and skill posed by the "learning society".
- In 2012, thanks to Law No. 92 on the reform of the labor market in a growth perspective, it was defined the right to the lifelong learning.
Therefore, Adult Education is focused on the concept that culture is a right, also for those who want to increase their knowledge. Increase the qualification of people and work forces is the main idea of these policies, in order to have skilled workers and aware citizens. Despite the recent reorganization of educational system for Adult Education, there are problems related to the lack of specific funds and the difficulty to involve adults in learning activities.